9471470424/7992384651
Log In

AMENORRHEA

What Is Amenorrhea?


Amenorrhea is the absence of menstrual bleeding and may be primary or secondary.
Primary amenorrhea is the absence of menstrual bleeding and secondary sexual characteristics (for example, breast development and pubic hair) in a girl by age 14 years or the absence of menstrual bleeding with normal development of secondary sexual characteristics in a girl by age 16 years.
Secondary amenorrhea is the absence of menstrual bleeding in a woman who had been menstruating but later stops menstruating for three or more months in the absence of pregnancy, lactation (production of breast milk), cycle suppression with systemic hormonal contraceptive (birth control) pills, or menopause. For a woman to have regular menstrual cycles, her hypothalamus, pituitary gland, ovaries, and uterus should all be functioning normally. The hypothalamus stimulates the pituitary gland to release follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). FSH and LH cause the ovaries to produce the hormones estrogen and progesterone. Estrogen and progesterone are responsible for the cyclical changes in the endometrium (uterine lining), including menstruation. In addition, a woman’s genital tract should be free of any abnormalities to allow the passage of menstrual blood.

Symptoms


The main sign of amenorrhea is the absence of menstrual periods. Depending on the cause of amenorrhea, you might experience other signs or symptoms along with the absence of periods, such as:

Milky nipple discharge
Hair loss
Headache
Vision changes
Excess facial hair
Pelvic pain
Acne



When to see a doctor


Consult your doctor if you've missed at least three menstrual periods in a row, or if you've never had a menstrual period and you're age 15 or older.


Causes


Amenorrhea can occur for a variety of reasons. Some are normal during the course of a woman's life, while others may be a side effect of medication or a sign of a medical problem.


Natural amenorrhea



During the normal course of your life, you may experience amenorrhea for natural reasons, such as:


Pregnancy
Breast-feeding
Menopause
Contraceptives
Some women who take birth control pills may not have periods. Even after stopping oral contraceptives, it may take some time before regular ovulation and menstruation return. Contraceptives that are injected or implanted also may cause amenorrhea, as can some types of intrauterine devices.
Medications

Certain medications can cause menstrual periods to stop, including some types of:


Antipsychotics
Cancer chemotherapy
Antidepressants
Blood pressure drugs
Allergy medications
Lifestyle factors



Sometimes lifestyle factors contribute to amenorrhea, for instance:


Low body weight. Excessively low body weight — about 10 percent under normal weight — interrupts many hormonal functions in your body, potentially halting ovulation. Women who have an eating disorder, such as anorexia or bulimia, often stop having periods because of these abnormal hormonal changes.
Excessive exercise. Women who participate in activities that require rigorous training, such as ballet, may find their menstrual cycles interrupted. Several factors combine to contribute to the loss of periods in athletes, including low body fat, stress and high energy expenditure.
Stress. Mental stress can temporarily alter the functioning of your hypothalamus — an area of your brain that controls the hormones that regulate your menstrual cycle. Ovulation and menstruation may stop as a result. Regular menstrual periods usually resume after your stress decreases.



Hormonal imbalance


Many types of medical problems can cause hormonal imbalance, including:


Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). PCOS causes relatively high and sustained levels of hormones, rather than the fluctuating levels seen in the normal menstrual cycle.
Thyroid malfunction. An overactive thyroid gland (hyperthyroidism) or underactive thyroid gland (hypothyroidism) can cause menstrual irregularities, including amenorrhea.
Pituitary tumor. A noncancerous (benign) tumor in your pituitary gland can interfere with the hormonal regulation of menstruation.
Premature menopause. Menopause usually begins around age 50. But, for some women, the ovarian supply of eggs diminishes before age 40, and menstruation stops.



Structural problems



Problems with the sexual organs themselves also can cause amenorrhea. Examples include:

Uterine scarring. Asherman's syndrome, a condition in which scar tissue builds up in the lining of the uterus, can sometimes occur after a dilation and curettage (D&C), cesarean section or treatment for uterine fibroids. Uterine scarring prevents the normal buildup and shedding of the uterine lining. Lack of reproductive organs. Sometimes problems arise during fetal development that lead to a girl being born without some major part of her reproductive system, such as her uterus, cervix or vagina. Because her reproductive system didn't develop normally, she can't have menstrual cycles.
Structural abnormality of the vagina. An obstruction of the vagina may prevent visible menstrual bleeding. A membrane or wall may be present in the vagina that blocks the outflow of blood from the uterus and cervix.



Risk factors



Factors that may increase your risk of amenorrhea may include:
Family history. If other women in your family have experienced amenorrhea, you may have inherited a predisposition for the problem.
Eating disorders. If you have an eating disorder, such as anorexia or bulimia, you are at higher risk of developing amenorrhea.
Athletic training. Rigorous athletic training can increase your risk of amenorrhea.



Complications


Complications of amenorrhea may include:
Infertility. If you don't ovulate and have menstrual periods, you can't become pregnant.
Osteoporosis. If your amenorrhea is caused by low estrogen levels, you may also be at risk of osteoporosis — a weakening of your bones