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Anemia

Anemia is a medical condition in which the number of red blood cells (RBCs) – also called the RBC count — or the amount of hemoglobin is less than normal. Hemoglobin is a reddish, iron-containing protein found in red blood cells that gives the red color to blood. Hemoglobin combines with oxygen from the lungs and then transports the oxygen to cells throughout the body. Anemia is the most common blood disease. There are more than 400 different types of anemia, but many of them have different causes, treatments, and outlooks.

  • Symptoms- Fatigue
  • Decreased energy
  • Weakness
  • Headaches
  • Lightheadedness
  • Cranky attitude
  • Shortness of breath
  • Heart palpitations (sensations of the heart racing or beating irregularly)
  • Pale colored or cold skin
  • Change in stool color (such as black and tarry stools)
  • Rapid heart rate
  • Low blood pressure
  • Rapid breathing
  • Yellowish colored skin (jaundice) if anemia is caused by red blood cell destruction

Symptoms of worsening anemia may include:

  • Problems concentrating or thinking
  • Blue color to the whites of the eyes
  • Brittle nails
  • Coldness in the hands and feet
  • Sore tongue
  • Chest pain, angina, or heart attack
  • Dizziness
  • Fainting or passing out
  • Rapid heart rate

Endometriosis

Endometriosis is when the tissue that makes up the uterine lining (the lining of the womb) is present on other organs inside your body. Endometriosis is usually found in the lower abdomen, or pelvis, but can appear anywhere in the body. Women with endometriosis often have lower abdominal pain, pain with periods, or pain with sexual intercourse, and may report having a hard time getting pregnant. On the other hand, some women with endometriosis may not have any symptoms at all.
Symptoms- Pain, including pelvic or lower abdominal pain and pain with menses, is the most common symptom of endometriosis. Women may also have pain with intercourse. The symptoms are often “cyclical” meaning that the pain is worse right before or during the period, and then improves. Women may have constant pelvic or lower abdominal pain as well. Other symptoms include subfertility, bowel and bladder symptoms (such as pain with bowel movements, bloating, constipation, blood in the urine, or pain with urination), and possibly abnormal vaginal bleeding.

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a set of symptoms due to elevated androgens (male hormones) in females. Signs and symptoms of PCOS include irregular or no menstrual periods, heavy periods, excess body and facial hair, acne, pelvic pain, difficulty getting pregnant, and patches of thick, darker, velvety skin. Associated conditions include type 2 diabetes, obesity, obstructive sleep apnea, heart disease, mood disorders, and endometrial cancer. PCOS is due to a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Risk factors include obesity, a lack of physical exercise, and a family history of someone with the condition.  Diagnosis is based on two of the following three findings: no ovulation, high androgen levels, and ovarian cysts.  Cysts may be detectable by ultrasound.  Other conditions that produce similar symptoms include adrenal hyperplasia, hypothyroidism, and high blood levels of prolactin. PCOS is the most common endocrine disorder among women between the ages of 18 and 44.  It affects approximately 2% to 20% of this age group depending on how it is defined.  When someone is infertile due to lack of ovulation, PCOS is the most common cause.

Common signs and symptoms of PCOS include the following:
  • Menstrual disorders: PCOS mostly produces oligomenorrhea (fewer than nine menstrual periods in a year) or amenorrhea (no menstrual periods for three or more consecutive months), but other types of menstrual disorders may also occur.
  • Infertility: This generally results directly from chronic anovulation (lack of ovulation).
  • High levels of masculinizing hormones: Known as hyperandrogenism, the most common signs are acne and hirsutism (male pattern of hair growth, such as on the chin or chest), but it may produce hypermenorrhea (heavy and prolonged menstrual periods), androgenic alopecia (increased hair thinning or diffuse hair loss), or other symptoms. Approximately three-quarters of women with PCOS (by the diagnostic criteria of NIH/NICHD 1990) have evidence of hyperandrogenemia.
  • Metabolic syndrome: This appears as a tendency towards central obesity and other symptoms associated with insulin resistance. Serum insulin, insulin resistance, and homocysteine levels are higher in women with PCOS.
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